Plenary Speakers

Ágoston Török

"The neuroscience of virtual reality: an applied research perspective"

Systems and Control Laboratory, Institute for Computer Science and Control,
Hungarian Academy of Sciences

Virtual reality (VR) is a unique area of research in that novel experimental findings are often quickly channelled into cutting edge technology. While most studies deal with the technical challenges of VR, in this talk I am going to focus more on design principles. I will argue that virtual reality – be it fully virtual, augmented, or mixed – is not only an interesting platform but also paves the way to a new era of interaction with information. Notably, this interaction is characterized by three main features: it is (1) intuitive, (2) organic, and (3) unconstrained. Intuitive means that it is easy to engage with VR no matter the person’s age, culture and background knowledge. Organic means that VR is not only a visualization form but much more importantly a multisensory experience - one that relies on how living organisms perceive the world around them. And finally, VR offers an unconstrained experience in that it is not tied to the physical world but is free to accommodate anything that is perceivable by the brain. I will use insights from classical and more recent experiments in cognitive neuroscience and psychology to justify these claims. Finally, I will provide some examples to highlight why I believe certain applications are destined to succeed and others are doomed to fail.

Brigitte Görnitz, Thomas Görnitz

From Quantum Theory to Mental Phenomena

Protyposis as the Key to a Scientific Explanation of Consciousness and to a Further Development of Intuitions of Jung and Pauli

Cognition is the detection and Communication is an exchange of meaningful information. Meaningful information is able to regulate and to steer unstable systems by unleashing available energy. Energy can act on the matter to move it or to transform it.
So we can define: Matter is what resists change. Energy is what can change matter. Information is what can release energy.
All these relations are possible due to the fact that matter, energy, and information are different forms of a unique basic entity: bits of abstract quantum information (AQIs). To avoid the popular misunderstanding of "information" as "meaningful" it was necessary to find a new word for the free-of-meaning AQI bits: the AQIs establish a quantum pre-structure termed „Protyposis“ (Greek: „pre-formation“). Contrary to usual information theory, the AQIs must be imagined also as free of emitter and receiver.
Quantum theory rests on two principles of common sense:

The popular superstition that smallness implies simplicity seems to be ineradicable. However, since the beginning of quantum theory, it would be possible to realize that the circumstances in nature are exactly the other way round. The idea "smaller becomes simpler" is useful only down to the atoms of chemistry. Planck’s formula E=hc/λ shows that smaller extensions are related to larger energies. That more and more energy should result in simpler and simpler structures, this does not only sound absurd, it is absurd.
The tensor product construction in quantum theory admits the development of new structures from simpler ones. The most simple quantum structures, the AQIs, have only a two-dimensional state space. For information, it is evident that more information allows a narrower localization. With the quantum theory of the Protyposis, a cosmological model is constructed. The AQIs can form also relativistic particles. They allow an explanation of the structure of the fundamental interactions, the electromagnetic, the weak and the strong interaction.
In living beings, the AQIs can become meaningful and eventually they can also form a conscious mind.
The AQIs and quantum nonlocality have made possible also to explain psychic phenomena that are at the center of common interest of the psychologist C. G. Jung and the physicist Wolfgang Pauli, e. g synchronicity.

Valéria Csépe

"Challenges faced by humans in a common cognitive system shared with smart machines"

MTA RCNS Brain Imaging Centre, Budapest, Hungary

Humans and all smart devices especially those applying the newest result of artificial intelligence (AI) research form a shared capacity cognitive system of immersive quality. Multi-disciplinary research on the cognitive information change as well as on the situation awareness is more timely than ever as the application of AI takes part in the common cognitive system of humans and machines. While the fast development of engineering is far ahead of human development the routine use of smart devices and intelligent systems is hindered by the delayed emergence of a common cognitive system. Although the amount of data on the changeable nature of cognitive abilities and skills of children and youngsters increases the conclusions drawn are rather contradicting. As the newest data show the concept of ‘digital natives’ is a rather a myth than confirmed scientific result, a radically new approach is needed for understanding how the human-machines systems operating in a cognitive space develop and how the cognitive capacity of abilities and skills emerge in the interaction experienced from early childhood on. Cognitive science is on its way to contribute to a better understanding the human-robot teams, the physical and cyber security systems, as well as the intelligent transportation systems. The presentation will highlight how cognitive science may contribute to interpreting and integrating disparate data into a more consistent world model. For illustration two challenges of the recent and coming years will be discussed: (1) effect of early experience with smart devices on cognitive development, (2) emergence of cognitive space and situation awareness, (3) challenges of digital school and blended learning.

Attila Pethő

Data protection in the cyber space

University of Debrecen

The amount of data transmitted and/or stored in the cyber space is growing exponentially. A considerable part of it is sensitive. With the spread of smart devices the demand and necessity of technological data protection continously increases. Cloud storing and computing, virtual reality, especially virtual money, and the Internet of things raise a lot of new questions. In our talk we concentrate on the most important problems; on authentication and the proof of integrity. We present the basic methods of private-, and public key and hybrid cryptography, which make it possible to secure our virtual environments.

Ingo Schmitt

Data Modeling using Concepts of Quantum Mechanics

Quantum mechanics provides a theory for describing microscopical physical systems and their phenomena. Its mathematical theory is one of the most fundamental theory in physics and can be stated by the four famous postulates.

An essential goal of computer science is to semantically model real world objects of a universe of discourse in order to simulate real world processes. The structure of real world objects is represented in an information system by data structures and object behavior by corresponding data processing. It seems to be promising to use the mathematical theory of quantum mechanics for encoding real world objects into specific data structures and processes. We aim to benefit from the fact that quantum theory combines concepts of logic, linear algebra and probability in one elegant framework whereas traditionally they are treated separately. Many applications from cognition require a consideration of those concepts.

The talk is not about quantum computing. Instead, quantum theory is deployed for data modeling on a traditional computer system.

The talk will address following questions about data modeling using concepts of quantum theory:
- How can we encode object’s property values using state vectors?
- How can complex data structures be constructed using superposition and tensor product?
- How can we retrieve information using projector measurements?
- How can we construct complex queries using quantum logic?
- What is the relation between data dependencies and entanglement?

György Szaszák

"Speech Prosody: a Barely Known, yet Surprisingly Versatile Cue and its Rich Exploitation Possibilities in Cognitive Infocommunications"

Dept. of Telecommunications and Media Informatics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics Hungarian Academy of Sciences,
Budapest, Hungary

The prosody of human speech carries important information, it provides cues for speech perception (i.e. decoding by referreing to the information structure via prominence, intonation, rhythm, pauses etc.), it adds additional information to the verbal content, reflects a hierarchical layering of the message or provides cues for synchronization during the communication. It is often mentioned as the first component of human speech that children perceive and learn, already at the foetal stage prior to their birth. Although it has been long known that modelling and generating adequate prosody is crucial in machine produced speech (text-to-speech synthesis), as prosody is very closely correlated with the percieved speech quality, yet, its exploitation in processes relying on automated machine "perception" of speech has been long neglected. Recently, several techniques exploiting speech prosody in cognitive modelling, infocommunications, speech recognition and understanding have been proposed, and the integration of modules capable of such processing of speech prosody becomes more common. The aim of the talk is to give first a short overview of state-of-the-art prosody modelling and present the ways prosody can be exploited in cognitive infocommunications. Thereafter, we also move on to some more concrete applications to illustrate the rich inventory of prosody in the scope of cognitive infocommunications dealing with speech: cognitive models of prosody in speech understanding and summarization, speech recognition, speech analysis, information retrieval and various applications helping language acquisition, rehabilitation of speech or hearing impaired persons or diagnostics of illnesses affecting either cognitive functions or speech production or perception.